Project managers must be consultants and must behave like consultants – it’s a bad day for “permies

Ed Taaffe has enjoyed a twenty year career in management with the past ten years spent in Project management and takes a special interest I human motivation as a management tool.  In this piece he explains why the consultant relationship with the client and the project team is critical to the success of projects.

This argument has nothing at all to do with the perennial  disagreements between Contractors and “Permies” in the IT industry, though it does go part of the way to proving the contractor viewpoint right.

What does success look like?
First let me be specific about the project failures we are addressing. There are all kinds out there and as any good problem solver or six sigma practitioner will tell you, there is more than one way to apportion blame and define cause.

What I am specifically addressing  is the high proportion of projects that get closed down,  or arrive late enough , or sufficiently over budget, or of sufficiently low quality to be deemed a failure.

These projects all started off wit everything in place and going fine, then at some point they began to drift and continued to drift unchecked until they ended up a failure.

My assumption is that since many projects defy totally accurate prediction of time and cost, there is a built in expectation that budget, scope and or duration may have to move at some point, if this is done and agreed then there is no project failure. Project failure occurs when the rot sets in and it is ignored, or when the project is set up with immovable boundaries and finishes outside of them.

Knowledge management holds the key

Within the technology world there is a particular inability to understand the nature of knowledge and it is mostly equated to data, or at best and not often, to information. The trouble is that neither of theses viewpoints is helpful.
 It is OK to believe that a  software process demands a precise piece of data to work correctly and to live in a virtual world of absolutes as do many technically minded people, but that doesn’t wash in the real world and there lies the corpse of many a CIO.

in the real world of doers, makers and shakers, decisions are made by people and the key ingredient is not the data, but the implicit and tacit elements of the way the people interpret information.

Bear with me, I’m almost done with the boring stuff.
Cognitive Dissonance

Leon Festinger produced a study in 1957 at Stanford University whereby he clearly demonstrated that when somebody has reason to present an argument that is actually at odds with what he believes, he naturally alters is opinions as a result and finds himself agreeing much more with the argument that he previously disagreed with strongly.

It’s not hard to imagine how and why this might occur and there is plenty of further work exploring this aspect of the phenomenon of Cognitive Dissonance, however the most interesting part of the experiment carried out by Festinger demonstrated that when a reward, or threat was used to force, or induce the person to argue against his own beliefs or judgement, then the effect of Cognitive dissonance was lessened, or missing altogether.

Clearly the mind has no trouble in understanding the idea of being paid to hold an entirely objective opinion, which it seems almost incapable of achieving under other circumstances.

Implicit and tacit knowledge

Interpretation of information and comparing it with learned responses and experiential knowledge and bias is the essence of implicit and tacit knowledge. It is therefore critical, naturally that the information is interpreted in a fairly objective way if the resulting knowledge is to be accurate and reliable and good decisions made.

Take the situation where the project manager has been indoctrinated and reaffirmed again and again that the project is on schedule and will not fail, or will not slide and he has sent out the RAG reports and made reports and presentations to stakeholders and boards convincing them that everything is going well, how do you expect he will react to data, or information telling him that several key tasks have slipped and there are issues looming?

It’s all in state of mind

The fact is that if our project manage is part of the culture and one of the pack and he feels the pressure to make this project a success, he will convince himself so strongly of this that he will behave exactly like Festinger’s students did in his experiment back in 1957, he will fail to see, or assimilate that which contradicts what he has been told to believe by the peer group, that which is contradictory to the crowd consciousness.

The answer is simple

The project manager must be an independent consultant and he must be a facilitator only.
He must have no personal stake in the success or failure of the project in terms of hitting dates, amounts, or quality targets, but he must be someone who talks straight, keeps the “permies” honest, ignores the crowd pull and tells the Empror when he is wearing no clothes.

Motivating people for project managers

Diagram of a :en:matrix organisation

Image via Wikipedia


Outside of the area of direct sales and many would argue to include that too, there has been a momentous movement away from good old fashioned man management techniques. (please read Man to mean both genders, this is an old term well worth revisiting).

Some blame Matrix management, others blame the growing influence of HR for disenfranchising managers, I blame managers for simply being lazy and blind to the blatantly obvious. I also blame the prevalence of methodology and process as a substitute for management skills rather than a supporting platform.  Managers who used to read “the one minute manager” on the train are now reading “Idiot’s guide to the latest Microsoft gadget”

As we moved from a blue collar workforce to a white collar one, the importance of personal motivation as a factor in performance has become more and more important.

As project managers, we take responsibility for a very important part of the organisation’s future and in doing so we become the spearhead and leader of select group of people deemed sufficiently knowledgeable and capable to help us make it happen. More often than not, these are the future stars of the organisation. Our job as project managers is to lead them. To do this, we will need to demonstrate ability, skills and personal motivation and we will need to respect and understand the factors that motivate the people we are tasked with leading.

Since this is a blog rather than a book, a detailed discussion is outside of it’s scope, so I will leave you with one big idea to begin with.
“With the possible exception of your mother, nobody will ever do anything for you, they will do it for themselves. The key therefore to getting others to do what you want done is to understand what would make them want to do it.”

If you really believe that you can substitute the fear card for motivation you are simply delusional, even basic humping and carrying can’t be managed this way alone for any length of time and that outpuut is clearly and easily measurable, unlike intellectual products.

Abraham Maslow introduced his theory of human motivation in 1943

 Maslow Hierarchy of needsIn this simple, but profoundly valuable theory, he explained how human motivations are built on each other and how each individual is striving for the level directly above the one they are at. It’s a simple concept and sufficient to understand the basics and begin to probe and understand the motivational needs of your people.

If John has no home he is very unhappy, but as soon as he gets one, he starts to be motivated by making it secure for next year and thereafter. When John has no friends he is concerned about making some, but no sooner has he done that than he wants to be friends with people that will make him look better.

Getting to know people in informal ways reveals things about them and this informal knowledge builds up an instinctive feel for what will motivate them.

The first time I used Maslow to advantage, I was in charge of a sales-force with shrinking sales in the face of a gripping recession. It was a vicious circle, they were de-motivated by recession and hence their performance fell just when it needed to rise. I was told to make cuts and not given much time to do it in. I responded by increasing their salary and removing their bonuses for all but the highest performances.
That may sound contra to every instinct, but it worked incredibly well. When I took away the fear about meeting the spiralling mortgage, they were motivated again.  Just as Maslov had told me, they were not really that motivated by the size of the pay cheque, but I got more mileage out of a few certificates and trinkets and exculsive clubs for high performers.  It worked and it did me no harm either.

Project management is not just about fiddling with Gantts and looking for inspiration, it is about getting off your seat, getting to know people and helping them to help you through helping themselves.

 Further reading

If you found Maslow useful, you may want to do some searches on Hetzberg Motivation-Hygiene theory


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